Investors

Accounting policy

The accounting policies set out below have been applied consistently to all periods presented in the consolidated financial statements, and have been applied consistently by Group entities.


(a) Basis of consolidation

(i)  Business combinations

The Group accounts for business combinations using the acquisition method when control is transferred to the Group.

(ii) Subsidiaries

Subsidiaries are entities controlled by the Group. The Group controls an entity when it is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. The financial statements of subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements from the date on which control commences until the date on which control ceases. The Group’s significant subsidiaries are disclosed in Note 31.

(iii) Transactions eliminated on consolidation

Intra-group balances and transactions, and any unrealised income and expenses arising from intra-group transactions, are eliminated. Unrealised gains arising from transactions with equity-accounted investees are eliminated against the investment to the extent of the Group’s interest in the investee. Unrealised losses are eliminated in the same way as unrealised gains, but only to the extent that there is no evidence of impairment.

(b) Foreign currency

Transactions in foreign currencies are translated to the functional currency of Group entities at exchange rates at the dates of the transactions. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the reporting date are retranslated to the functional currency at the exchange rate at that date. The foreign currency gain or loss on monetary items is the difference between amortised cost in the functional currency at the beginning of the period, adjusted for effective interest and payments during the period, and the amortised cost in foreign currency translated at the exchange rate at the end of the reporting period. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are measured at fair value are retranslated to the functional currency at the exchange rate at the date that the fair value was determined. Foreign currency differences arising in retranslation are recognised in profit or loss. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

(c) Financial instruments

(i) Financial assets

The Group’s financial assets comprise investments in equity and debt securities, loans given, trade and other receivables, and cash and cash equivalents.

The Group initially recognises loans and receivables and deposits on the date that they are originated.

The Group derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows on the financial asset in a transaction in which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred. Any interest in transferred financial assets that is created or retained by the Group is recognised as a separate asset or liability.

Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount presented in the consolidated statement of financial position when, and only when, the Group has a legal right to offset the amounts and intends either to settle on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Loans and receivables

Loans and receivables are financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market. Such assets are recognised initially at fair value plus any directly attributable transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition loans and receivables are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment losses. Loans and receivables comprise trade and other receivables.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash balances and call deposits with original maturities of three months or less. Bank overdrafts that are repayable on demand and form an integral part of the Group’s cash management are included as a component of cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of the consolidated statement of cash flows.

(ii) Financial liabilities

The Group initially recognises debt securities issued and subordinated liabilities on the date that they are originated. All other financial liabilities are recognised initially on the trade date at which the Group becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

The Group derecognises a financial liability when its contractual obligations are discharged or cancelled or expire.

Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount presented in the consolidated statement of financial position when, and only when, the Group has a legal right to offset the amounts and intends either to settle on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

The Group has the following non-derivative financial liabilities: loans and borrowings, bank overdrafts, and trade and other payables.

Such financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value plus any directly attributable transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition these financial liabilities are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.

(iii)   Impairment of financial assets

A financial asset not carried at fair value through profit or loss is assessed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any objective evidence that it is impaired. A financial asset is impaired if objective evidence indicates that a loss event has occurred after the initial recognition of the asset, and that the loss event had a negative effect on the estimated future cash flows of that asset that can be estimated reliably.

Objective evidence that financial assets are impaired can include default or delinquency by a debtor, restructuring of an amount due to the Group on terms that the Group would not consider otherwise, indications that a debtor or issuer will enter bankruptcy.

The Group considers evidence of impairment for loans given and receivables at a specific asset level. All receivables and loans are assessed for specific impairment.

An impairment loss in respect of a financial asset measured at amortised cost is calculated as the difference between its carrying amount, and the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted at the asset’s original effective interest rate. Losses are recognised in profit or loss and reflected in an allowance account against receivables. Interest on the impaired asset continues to be recognised through the unwinding of the discount. When a subsequent event causes the amount of impairment loss to decrease, the decrease in impairment loss is reversed through profit or loss.

(d) Advances received and paid

Due to the nature of its activities the Group receives significant advances from customers, and makes significant prepayments to sub-contractors and other suppliers. Advances received and paid are recognised on an undiscounted basis.

(e) Property, plant and equipment

(i) Recognition and measurement

Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment loss.

Cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset. The cost of self-constructed assets includes the cost of materials and direct labour, any other costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to a working condition for their intended use, the costs of dismantling and removing the items and restoring the site on which they are located, and borrowing costs on qualifying assets for which the commencement date for capitalisation is on or after 1 January 2008, the date of transition to IFRSs.

When parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.

Gains and losses on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment are determined by comparing the proceeds from disposal with the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment, and are recognised net within “other income” in profit or loss.

(ii) Subsequent costs

The cost of replacing part of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognised in the carrying amount of the item if it is probable that the future economic benefits embodied within the part will flow to the Group and its cost can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognised. The costs of the day-to-day servicing of property, plant and equipment are recognised in profit or loss as incurred.

(iii) Depreciation

Depreciation is calculated over the depreciable amount, which is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value.

Depreciation is recognised in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of each part of an item of property, plant and equipment, since this most closely reflects the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset. Leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives unless it is reasonably certain that the Group will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term. Land is not depreciated.

The estimated useful lives for the current and comparative periods are as follows:

  • Buildings and constructions                                 7-30 years;
  • Machinery and equipment                                   5-15 years;
  • Vehicles                                                                  5-10 years;
  • Other assets                                                          3-7 years.

Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted if appropriate. No estimates in respect of plant and equipment were revised in 2016.

(f) Inventories

Inventories comprise real estate properties under construction (including residential premises, stand-alone and built-in commercial premises) when the Group acts in the capacity of a developer, finished goods, and construction and other materials.

The Group accounts for stand-alone and built-in commercial properties within inventories because it does not intend to engage in renting-out those assets and keeping those as investment properties to generate rental income and benefit from appreciation. Properties classified as inventory may be rented out on a temporary basis while the Group is searching for a buyer. Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses.

The cost of real estate properties under construction is determined on the basis of specific identification of their individual costs. The costs of individual residential units and built-in commercial premises are arrived at by allocating the costs of a particular development project to individual apartments and built-in premises on a pro rata basis relative to their size.

The costs of real estate property comprise costs of construction and other expenditure directly attributable to a particular development project, including finance costs.

The cost of inventories, other than construction work in progress intended for sale, is based on the weighted average cost formula and includes expenditure incurred in acquiring the inventories, production or conversion costs and other costs incurred in bringing them to their existing location and condition. Cost of manufactured inventories and work in progress includes an appropriate share of overheads based on normal operating capacity.

Transfer from real estate properties under construction to the stock of finished goods occurs when the respective building is approved by the State commission established by the local regulating authorities for acceptance of finished buildings.

The Group’s inventory is not limited to 12 months and may be of longer term since the development cycle exceeds 12 months. Inventories are classified as current assets even when they are not expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting date.

(g) Revenue

(i) Revenue from sale of real estate properties (including flats, commercial premises and parking places)

Revenue from the sale of real estate properties is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates. Revenue is recognised when persuasive evidence exists that the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer, recovery of the consideration is probable, the associated costs and possible return of goods can be estimated reliably, there is no continuing management involvement with the goods, and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably.

The Group generally considers that risks and rewards have been transferred on the date when a buyer signs the act of acceptance of the property. However, transfer of risks and rewards may vary depending on the individual terms of the sales contracts.

When sales are contracted under share participation agreements the significant risks and rewards of ownership are considered to have been transferred to individual buyers when the construction is completed and the building has been approved by the State commission for acceptance of finished buildings.

In relation to sales via housing cooperatives, revenue is recognised on the date when sold real estate property is transferred to, and accepted by, the cooperative. Before that date, the respective building has to be approved by the State commission for acceptance of finished buildings.

(ii) Revenue from construction services

For accounting purposes the Group distinguishes two types of construction contracts:

1) Contracts for provision of construction services;

2) Contracts for construction of an asset falling within the scope of IAS 11 Construction Contracts.

For the first type of contracts revenue from construction services rendered is recognised in the consolidated statement of Profit or Loss and Other Comprehensive Income when it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Group and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably. These contracts are normally short-term, therefore revenue is recognised when the customer signs the act of acceptance of the construction service.

For the second type of contracts revenue and costs are recognised by reference to the stage of completion of the contract activity at the reporting date, measured based on the proportion of contract costs incurred for work performed to date relative to the estimated total contract costs. Variations in contract work, claims and incentive payments are included to the extent that they have been agreed with the customer.

Where the outcome of a construction contract cannot be estimated reliably, contract revenue is recognised to the extent of contract costs incurred that it is probable to be recoverable. Contract costs are recognised as expenses in the period in which they are incurred.

When it is probable that total contract costs will exceed total contract revenue, the expected loss is recognised as an expense immediately.

The Group recognises the following assets and liabilities related to construction contracts:

- unbilled receivables represent the gross unbilled amount expected to be collected from customers for contract work performed to date. It is measured at cost plus profit recognised to date less progress billings and recognised losses. Cost includes all expenditure related directly to specific projects and an allocation of fixed and variable overheads incurred in the Group’s contract activities based on normal operating capacity. Unbilled receivables are presented as part of trade and other receivables in the consolidated statement of financial position for all contracts in which costs incurred plus recognised profits exceed progress billings;

- billings in excess of work completed are recognised as a part of trade and other payables if progress billings exceed costs incurred plus recognised profits.

(iii) Revenue from sale of construction materials 

Revenue from the sale of construction materials produced by the Group is recognised in the consolidated statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income when significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer.

(iv) Rental income 

Rental income from stand-alone and built-in commercial properties (see note 3(f)) is recognised in the consolidated statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.

(h) Income tax

Income tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current tax and deferred tax are recognised in profit or loss except to the extent that it relates to a business combination, or items recognised directly in equity or in other comprehensive income.

Current tax is the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the period, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years. Current tax payable also includes any tax liability arising from the declaration of dividends.

Deferred tax is recognised in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is not recognised for:

  • temporary differences on the initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination and that affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss;
  • temporary differences related to investments in subsidiaries and associates to the extent that it is probable that they will not reverse in the foreseeable future; and
  • taxable temporary differences arising on the initial recognition of goodwill.

Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to the temporary differences when they reverse, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets and liabilities, and they relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the same taxable entity, or on different tax entities, but they intend to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis or their tax assets and liabilities will be realised simultaneously.

In accordance with the tax legislation of the Russian Federation, tax losses and current tax assets of a company in the Group may not be set off against taxable profits and current tax liabilities of other Group companies. In addition, the tax base is determined separately for each of the Group’s main activities and, therefore, tax losses and taxable profits related to different activities cannot be offset.

A deferred tax asset is recognised for unused tax losses, tax credits and deductible temporary differences, to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be utilised. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realised.

Last updated: 24 May 2017